Adam’s Advice On What To Do About This Dog’s Separation Anxiety

JB wrote to ask me about her dog having separation anxiety when she’s gone:

“My 4 year old adopted English Cocker is almost perfect except for barking when in her crate and we are gone. The neighbors are complaining because she supposedly barks and howls all the time we are gone. Otherwise she NEVER barks at anything. Also, she stays very calm and quiet when alone in the car.”

“She has perfect manners and is a sweet heart, but has velcro bonded to me.  Help!”

Adam’s Advice On What To Do
About This Dog’s Separation Anxiety

I replied:

“First, I would set up a video camera to make sure that your dog really IS making the noise that they claim it’s making. I’ve had experiences in the past where a neighbor would think it was one dog when it was actually somebody else’s dog.

Separation Anxiety

Second: Start using the obedience exercises and stop touching her all the time. (Or letting her touch you). Put her on down-stays or use the “place” command. General obedience exercises will help too, as it teaches the dog clearly when she’s doing something right and something wrong… so she doesn’t have to guess.

In addition:
– Ignore the dog for 10 minutes before leaving and after coming home.
– You can try the DAP Diffuser
– Talk to vet about Clomicalm
– Keep the dog in the crate while you’re home, frequently.
– Try the “Thundershirt”:

Regular daily aerobic exercise is important, too.

Labeling A Dog As Having Separation Anxiety

By Joe Camacho of Dog Squad U, based in Tuscon, Arizona.
— Reprinted here with explicit permission from Joe. 

There is an old antage that goes: “The only thing two dog trainers can agree on is what the third is doing wrong.” That being said, I’d like to talk a little bit about MY philosophy on the issue of Separation Anxiety.  A dog will usually exhibit signs of Separation Anxiety in one of the following ways:

• Barking /Crying when you leave
• Destructive Chewing
• Hyper Activivity
• Escaping from your home when you leave

Usually most dog owners begin to rationalize why their dog has Separation Anxiety

• Rescue Dog and was Abused at his last home
• My dog loves me SO much that s/he cant stand to be away
• Environmental Changes
• Breed Specific Issue

Ok, now lets talk about Behavioral Issues: Many times I get called to a home because a dog is; jumping, chewing, scratching, taking food that doesn’t belong to them, getting on furniture etc. Now many of these same behaviors are signs of “Separation Anxiety”, the only difference is that the owners are not home when the behaviors are being acted out. At the end of the day, whether or not the owners are home, is it still not considered NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR?

As humans, we tend to give a lot of sympathy to conditions if the have a “Title”, let me give you an example. If someone has an unruly child in a waiting room and an onlooker says, “that kid is a brat”, we have a visual picture as to how the child is acting and probably stereotype his or her behavior and maybe even say it’s a sign of BAD PARENTING. Now if we later learn that the same child has “ADHD” we may tend to look at the child differently and with more concern, we will probably have empathy for the parents as well. The same goes with our dogs, Once we label a dog as a having “Separation Anxiety” we tend to feel that their behavior is due to their past (which we can’t change anyway and they do not remember), we don’t want to take the time to train the dog in order to fix it, because that would be cruel to put the dog through the “stress” of training. I mean, they’ve already had a rough life, correct? If we feel that way, are we as dog owners no different than the “Bad” parent of the BRATY child?

Basic dog obedience can help curb this problem. Once a dog has an understanding of what is right/wrong and has some self-confidence, I have seen many behavioral issues go away on there own. When you or I feel better and secure about our world, don’t we perform and act better? Don’t believe me, it wasn’t long ago that corporate America changed the title of “Secretaries” to “Executive Assistants” in an attempt to add self worth you employees and boost moral.

Before you go through the expense of having your dog put on medication to temporarly fix the issues, be a good “Parent” and take the time to have a qualified trainer work with you and your dog to not only fix the problem temporarily, but for a lifetime. That is what you committed to your dog when you decided to bring them into your world – a lifetime.

There are many qualified trainer in the Tucson area, if you do not seek help from — please find a trainer who you are comfortable with and lets keep dogs from over crowding shelters in town.

Reprinted with explicit permission from Joe Camacho of DogSquadU.

Separation Anxiety in Dogs — The Hardest Of All Behaviors To Fix

A friend online (in a private Jiu Jitsu forum I host) had a question about separation anxiety, and a few others chimed in, also:

Trixie writes: “I have some friends that moved here back in July. The moving process took them a while, they had a new born and had to make several trips between states. They had to leave their dog with various friends for days at a time. Now that they are here and settled in their new house their dog (she’s a 7yr old, boxer mix) has started tearing their house up when they leave for a few hours. They put her in a travel kennel a few times and she eventually chewed a hole big enough to climb through. She’s chewed and clawed the door frames on 3-4 doors and done some other damage. The wife told me that when she loads up the kids to go anywhere the dog starts shaking like she’s terrified. The husband is pretty much fed up with her and wants to get rid of her. Any suggestions or thoughts? The wife and 3 year old son don’t want to give her away.”


Adam replies: “It’s separation anxiety.  The hardest of all behaviors to fix.

Tell them:

– Ignore the dog for 10 minutes before leaving and after coming home.
– Buy a heavy duty crate.
– Try the DAP Diffuser (see: Amazon)
– Talk to vet about Clomicalm
– Keep the dog in the crate while they’re home, frequently.

It’s a long term therapy kind of thing.  Did the dog have this behavior before they moved?”


Trixie adds: “I’m not sure, but from what they’ve said she did do a little of that before they moved. They said they had to repair some minor things to their old house that she had messed up so they could sell it.

Thank you wo much  for the suggestions. I will pass them on. I’m trying to not get too involved, cause its not my business, but I hate to see people get rid of a perfectly good dog and not try to work with her. I figure if they do give her away she’ll have double the issues with the next people. Other than this problem she is a very well behaved dog, sweet, laid back, excellent with their 3 yr old and cat.  It’s sad.”


Chris mentions: “Adam gave me the same advice for my dog and it does work. Also tell them to be patient. We’ve had on & off problems with our dog over the last 4-5 years. Something will set her off and it’s a pain-in-the-neck for a few weeks. But then things return to normal. Dog might just need time to adjust to the new house.

We use the Clomicalm. We also have a crate that we put her in everyday. On the weekends we’ll do it a few times a day. Usually about 30 minutes. The goal is to get her comfortable enough in the crate that we can use it when we leave the house.”


Dixie writes: “My pits have anxiety issues.  One dog got past it, one had gotten better by keeping him in the crate and leaving him be for a bit before I left him.  (Just like Adam said, worked too)  I didn’t/don’t have to medicate him, and he gradually got past the destructive part.  That process took months and a lot of patience. He still has some issues (storm anxiety) but I know how to react and what to do calm him. (Thank you, Adam)  Everything Adam has ever told me to do about my dogs has worked like a charm.

I hope the owners of the dog are willing to take the time and work through the issue.

A nippit from the Dixie dog files.  Cheesy  Playing classical music low volume helps my dog relax especially in the crate or kennel.

The anxiety story.  Lucky bit a kid in my yard, (not bad though) so the breed ignorant dog catcher guy put Lucky in Jail 10 days.  I was pissed.  So, instead of sending him to county for jail, I housed him at my vet.  Lucky chewed everything he could put his mouth on in a chain link tile floor kennel.  He ate the light switch and chewed out the drain in the floor, he shreaded his bedding and chewed the fence a little.  The vet people said they had never seen a dog chew the light switch and everything available like that.  I noticed they had country on the radio.  I told them to change the station to classical, they did, it helped him a lot.  Though Mozart is my fav Lucky seems to like Bach.”

Dog Seperation Anxiety on the Leash

Whiteshepherd wrote to me about dog separation anxiety:

I had a really embarrassing moment this afternoon. I and my 8 months old GSD live with my cousin. My cousin usually takes him out potty in the morning and feed him when I’m not home. My dog is house trained and stays in his crate during the day. he doesn’t bark when we’re not home.

This afternoon we took him out for a walk since it’s the first sunny afternoon after 2 raining days. I started teaching my cousin some basic concepts and handling skills I’d learned from Adam’s secret book. Things went pretty well with loose leash heeling, sit and down commands since my dog had previous exercises with these commands. Then here came the embarrassing moment. we soon found out that I could not walk away from my cousin and the dog. I could take my dog from him and went for a walk with no problem, but when my cousin took over the leash, and I walked a way, then the dog started barking and whining. I had prong collar on him and asked my cousin to correct him and to make him stop this unwanted behavior. the dog gave vocal response to the corrections, but didn’t stop whining. I asked my cousin to put him to a down position, the dog did follow the command but kept whining loudly. People in the park were looking at us and few guys came up and check if we were abusing the dog. and few people made those typical comments on how we should never use the prong collar on a dog, and blah blah… we decided not to draw too much attention and took the dog home.

So here I am, looking for the solutions. I saw my cousin giving him couple of pretty good correction and heard the vocal response from the dog as well. should we give him even harder correction or not? Really need to solve this problem ASAP.

whiteshepard adds:

I really need a solution for this. and this happened again. today my friends and their dog came over, and my dog went nutz cos I tried to take him away from my friends and their dog. no matter how hard I correct, he just kept barking, whining and pulling on leash (with a prong collar on). he sounded like i was trying to kill him.

Adam replies:

Hi, WhiteShepherd:

For this type of behavior (and especially for this breed) — I think you’re really going to get the best results by using the e-collar. I recommend this one:
(The 280 NCP)

What you’re going to want to do is: Work the dog with the e-collar, but without distractions, the first few times. Re-teach basic commands (I.E. acclimate to the e-collar) by synchronizing your leash correction with the e-stim). Demand perfect attention.

I’m not exactly sure why the e-collar works so well, for this type of behavior– but it does. Just make sure your commands are clear and the dog understands what you want.

Don’t just say, “No!” for the whining — make the dog (with the e-collar) hold a down-stay or a sit-stay. And focus on you.

When you start working around other dogs, start with the “attention getter” with the e-collar. Then progress to commands. Give a tap on the e-collar, every time the dog’s attention is not on you, and walk the opposite direction.

This will work, pretty much guaranteed. Just make sure the e-collar is fitted properly and the contact points are making contact.

You’re welcome to post a video on Youtube, once you get the collar, if you need more instruction, and I’ll watch it and critique. But I think you’ll be amazed at how well the e-collar works, as long as you’re 100% certain the dog understands what the e-stim is for.

Until you get the collar, don’t let her around other dogs, as you currently don’t have a way to give a meaningful correction.

– Adam.

Adam adds:

I should add: Once you’ve got the dog understanding the exercises with the e-collar, then transition to your cousin. He’ll initially have to work the dog at a slightly higher stim level, to get the dog’s attention, but after the first initial 5-10 minutes, he’ll be able to adjust it down.

– Adam.

Train Your Dog to Avoid Accidents In Crate

Yorma writes to me:

Our 11 year old puppy obviously hasn’t read the dog crating rules and doesn’t know NOT to poop/pee in his crate. He does use wee wee pads when outside the crate and we give plenty of time to relieve himself before placing him in the crate. But after we leave him alone for 30 minutes to an hour…we return to a crate full of poop. We’ve made the area quite small within the crate, where he can barely turn around but it keeps happening. (little if any bedding). Something is in his head and we can’t figure it out. We also clean and disenfect very, very well after any accidents… ANY ADVICE WOULD BE APPRECIATED…but please do not simply send me to a site about crate training. READ THEM ALL and almost none assume the dog will poop repeadedly in. HELP PLEASE!!! Thanks.

Adam replies:

Hi, Yorma:

Is your dog 11 months old, or 11 years old? Please let me know. If he’s 11 years old, I’m curious why you’re crate training now, and if he’s displayed separation anxiety in any other contexts?

It’s very likely your dog is suffering from separation anxiety… which isn’t really a true housebreaking issue in light of what you’ve described.

This is what our local veterinarian recommends. The last time we were there, she told me that she’s had a lot of success, with a lot of different dogs using the DAP Diffuser:

Please report back (good results or not) and we can go from there.

Or, if you’d like to try two remedies at the same time: Ask your vet about a med called “Clomicalm” (or something similar that she might suggest?) It’s basically an anti-anxiety type med. It’s not forever, it’s just to get him over his issues.

Keep me posted. — Adam.

Separation Anxiety and Clomicalm– Prozac for Dogs! Does It Really Work?

Separation anxiety is a behavior that many dogs begin to exhibit when away from their pack, or family. As the name implies, they are literally “anxious” about being “separated” from their pack.

However, this “anxiety” can be as mild as: excessive drooling, barking and hyperventilation… to more extreme behaviors such as: self-mutilation, chewing anything and everything in sight, jumping through glass windows, and literally chewing through drywall… and even doors!

Separation anxiety also happens to be one of the most difficult behavior problems to fix… especially if you work a normal job and cannot spend days struggling with incremental improvement in your dog’s situation. And of course, as a professional dog trainer, I’m always interested in anything that can make behavior modification work faster and easier.

So when I heard about the new canine drug Clomicalm being a sort of “doggie Prozac”… I got excited. A Newsletter/Web page created by San Carlos Veterinary Hospital, states that: “In April, 1998 the pharmaceutical company Novartis won approval from the European Commission to market a drug named Clomicalm to treat separation anxiety in dogs. The US FDA gave similar approval for Clomicalm in December, 1998.

The same drug, known by the brand name Anafranil (generic name clomipramine hydrochloride), has been used for years to treat depression in humans. Novartis conducted studies in late 1997 and early 1998 involving various combinations and of clomipramine and behavior modification. Dr. Patrick Melese conducted one of the studies at the Tierrasanta Veterinary Hospital here in San Diego.

One of our canine customers, an 11 year-old English Springer Spaniel named Molloy, took part in that study. The San Carlos Veterinary Hospital’s full article is at:

So, I decided to investigate a bit more. Without going into detail about my full investigation and findings about the drug itself, let me first point out that the behavioral approach to fixing separation anxiety outlined on the Novartis Web Site (the maker of Clomicalm) was excellent. In fact, I don’t think I could have said it more concisely myself.

So, here it is: The Advice on the Novartis Site Suggests You Should: Before Leaving : Pay no attention to your dog for 10-30 minutes before going out. Note: When you leave, make it low key, without elaborate good-byes. Just walk out the door. Leave a special toy or a treat to distract the dog when you go out and remove the item upon your return. Note: Make this something special, like a food-filled treat, so that your leaving is associated with something positive.

The treat should also occupy your dog during those critical first moments after your departure. When Returning: Ignore dog until he is quiet and relaxed, then interact on owner’s initiative. Note: You may not realize it, but even eye contact can be rewarding to a dog seeking attention. Interact with your dog only when he is quiet, thus rewarding his calm behavior. Do not reprimand dog for destructive behavior or for urinating or defecating in the house. Note: No matter what you find when you get home, remember that your dog could not control himself when you were away. Punishment will not help, and will only increase his anxiety.

At Home: Interact with your dog only at your initiative and when the dog is relaxed. Note: Again, show your dog that you like to play with him when he’s calm and relaxed. To encourage independence, avoid constant physical contact with your dog. Encourage him to lie down near you, but not in contact with you. Teach your dog to stay calm as you move away; gradually increase distance and time away. Note: Teach your dog to be alone, little by little. Have him sit or lie down and stay in place as you back away, praising his calm behavior. Gradually increase your distance and tome away, to help him become more independent, and cope with being alone.

Put your coat on or play with your keys at times other than departure. Note: Certain cues tell your dog that you’re getting ready to leave. When he sees these, he begins to panic. This technique will help him become indifferent to those cues. The link to this page is at:

A Few More Separation Anxiety Tips That May Make Your Life Easier

1.) Don’t leave your dog free run of the house or yard. Instead, leave him in a crate or kennel run. If your dog tries to chew or destroy either the crate or kennel run, you’re going to have to upgrade to more professional equipment. Regarding dogs the exhibit extreme separation anxiety and try to chew through plastic crates, or break wire frame crates… you’ll need to buy a full metal crate.

Once the dog learns he can break out of a crate, he’ll keep trying until he is successful. But with a full metal crate, it is impossible. And you’ll find that he will eventually give up and metaphorically “cry himself to sleep.” Because the dog learns that he cannot break or escape from this type of crate (in other words, the behavior is not rewarded)… then he will eventually drop this behavior. And later can switch back to a normal crate.

I did a quick search on Excite, and came up with the following web address. It’s a company that sells the type of metal crates I’m talking about: Note: If you don’t need to, just use the standard Vari-kennel type crate to confine your dog. The all-metal crates can be pretty expensive!

2.) Use a two foot, plastic coated cable tie-down. You’ll probably need to make one of these at your local hardware store, because they’re hard to find. Trim the plastic about two inches or so from each end. Make a small loop on one end by running it through a small bracket, and then crimp it so that it stays. On the other end, do the same, but attach a small harness snap. You should use the cable-tie down by attaching it to an eye-bolt you fasten to a wall in your house. Or alternatively, just loop the cable tie-down around the foot of a heavy dresser or bed.

The cable tie-down is for indoor use, only. If the dog doesn’t have a problem with chewing, you can use the cable tie-down instead of a crate. Attach the training collar to the tie-down, and if the dog starts to get hyper-active, he’ll actually self-correct. And because the tie down is only 2 feet, you don’t need to worry about him getting himself wrapped up in anything (assuming you use common sense regarding where you attach the tie-down.) I’d also recommend that you keep the dog on the tie-down, or in the crate, while you’re home (per the reasoning outlined above.)

But what about the drugs, Adam? We want to know about the magic drugs!!!

Well, unfortunately (or fortunately) I came upon an abstract in the Journal of American Veterinary Medicine which reported the results of a study done to assess the effectiveness of Clomipramine on separation anxiety and canine compulsive disorder.

To summarize: The study was done on 51 dogs suffering from separation anxiety, and it stretched over a period of 4 weeks. As far as I can tell, the study seems pretty scientific. (I.E., they took into account control groups, placebos, etc…)

The long term results of the study showed that, “Of the 51 dogs, 6 were lost to follow-up. Follow up of the remaining 45 dogs showed that ALL DOGS CONTINUED THEIR BEHAVIORS, NONE WERE CURED after 4 weeks of treatment with clomipramine. Clomipramine had been stopped in 32 of these dogs because the owners considered it either INEFFECTIVE or not sufficiently effective (24/32), adverse effects (3/32), or the owner concerns over cost or the continued use of psychotropic drugs (5/32). Clomipramine therapy was continued after the study in the remaining 13 dogs and was considered effective in 6/13, somewhat effective in 3/13, and ineffective in 4/13.” So… draw your own conclusions.

I think that if I adopted a dog tomorrow that turned out to have symptoms of separation anxiety, I’d probably try the drugs in conjunction with the behavior modification techniques described earlier in this article. But for me, the verdict is not in. Personally, I feel that separation anxiety is a result of relational issues between the owner and the dog. And at best, the drug (if it works) will only help to take the edge off and speed the recovery process.

Fixing separation anxiety can be a long and arduous process. I wish you the best of luck.


Overcoming Your Dog’s Boredom

Dogs are a lot like children. They need stimulation or they will get bored and we all know the trouble children can be when they get bored.

Bored dogs are generally unhappy dogs and they are also the dogs that are most likely to get into trouble with other animals and humans. The happiest dogs are often the working dogs as they not only have a purpose in life but they also get the praise and regular attention of their owners.

Even simply getting your dog some toys of it’s own to play with can add a lot of fun and happiness to it’s life, but more importantly getting the dog involved in family activities will have a positive effect on it’s mental state and happiness. Dogs love to be taken for walks or a run along the beach. They get to look at a different environment and interact with strangers and other dogs.

This social interaction is very important for the overall well being of your dog and it is something that needs to be done on a regular basis. One of the benefits of dog training schools is the fact that your dog will get to interact with other dogs, however training your dog at home also has it’s benefits as you will be learning each others personalities when working closely together and your dog will still get the opportunity to socialize with other dogs when you take it for walks in the park and similar activities.

Any time spent with your dog, whether it is training or just enjoying playtime, is great for building a long and happy relationship.  

Please note: This article is part of a collection of dog-related content that we purchased the rights to. Opinions expressed may or may not agree with those espoused by Master Dog Trainer Adam G. Katz. When in doubt, please refer to the advice given in Adam’s dog training book.  This article is provided for your enjoyment, only. It’s relevance to real world working dog training may be limited.

Separation Anxiety

Many people are unaware that separation anxiety even exists with their dog. There are many different traits that can be seen in a dog due to separation anxiety.

When we leave home for work each day, most people are unaware of what their dog is experiencing, and for many of them it is separation anxiety. We assume that because the dog appears to be happy when we arrive home at the end of the day, that it has been happy all day long.

In many instances, the dog could have had quite a traumatic day. Many dogs are concerned that when their owner leaves, they might not be coming back. They have no way of knowing that we will be back in eight or nine hours. The stress that this causes for a dog can lead to destructive behavior where they will chew everything in sight.

Other dogs might express their stress by soiling the house. Either way, if you come home from work and find that your well-trained dog has done something out of the ordinary you need to consider whether it has had a stressful day or not, and certainly not reprimand it until you know what the circumstances have been.

If you sense your dog has been stressed during the day, you might like to consider giving it more toys to stop it from becoming bored, or better still, have somebody call in and visit at some stage throughout the day so it knows that it is not alone. Exercising your dog in the morning before you leave is a good idea because it is more likely to sleep during the day.

Another method to reassure your dog that you will be coming back when you leave, is to do several smaller trips in the course of a few days or weeks, where the dog becomes more and more accustomed to you leaving and returning at different intervals. By slowly extending these hours of separation, your dog will become accustomed to it, thereby eliminating separation anxiety.  

Please note: This article is part of a collection of dog-related content that we purchased the rights to. Opinions expressed may or may not agree with those espoused by Master Dog Trainer Adam G. Katz. When in doubt, please refer to the advice given in Adam’s dog training book.  This article is provided for your enjoyment, only. It’s relevance to real world working dog training may be limited.

Stop My Dog From Whining

So you have a problem with a whining dog? It is not unusual for people to have problems, particularly with puppies whining all day long. Most puppies will outgrow this behavior.

They generally whine for two reasons: For attention and when they are anxious. If they want attention, they will continue to whine if that attention attracts a reward. It is better just to give your dog attention in the form of eye contact rather than a reward to stop it from whining, as a reward will only encourage it to whine all the more.

Often the best solution is to ignore the dog completely until the whining stops no matter how long it might take. When the dog realizes that it is not getting the reward it expects from whining it will tend to stop. An alternative method is to blow a whistle when your dog is whining and when it stops you stop.

Often this method works faster than simply ignoring it. Another reason why dogs whine is because they are anxious. Particularly when nobody is around and they have separation anxiety. This can be more difficult, if you are unable to find somebody to mind the dog when you’re away. Leaving your dog with suitable toys to play with, fresh food and water can assist, and also getting it used to you being away by starting off with shorter periods apart as discussed in a previous newsletter.

Another method to stop your dog from whining is to buy a clicker from a pet store and ignore the whining until it stops. Once the dog stops whining, wait for a few seconds and then click the clicker, and then reward it in some manner. The dog will soon learn that the reward comes from its silence. 

Please note: This article is part of a collection of dog-related content that we purchased the rights to. Opinions expressed may or may not agree with those espoused by Master Dog Trainer Adam G. Katz. When in doubt, please refer to the advice given in Adam’s dog training book.  This article is provided for your enjoyment, only. It’s relevance to real world working dog training may be limited.

When You And Your Dog Are Apart

There are times when you and your dog will need to be apart Unless you have no intention of ever being apart from your dog, then it is a wise decision to train it to be happy while you have periods apart.

As we have our pets for many years there will generally be times when there is no alternative but to leave your dog alone or with someone else. The sooner they become accustomed to staying on their own as puppies the easier it will be for both you and your dog. It is a lot harder to leave an older dog on it’s own if you have never been apart since it was a puppy.

Dogs can get separation anxiety quite easily as they cannot be told when we will be back if ever and they will assume that you have left them and are not coming back. By training them when they are young they will accept that you will be gone for while and will remain happy knowing that you will be coming back at some time.

I know people who have failed to do this and they have the burden of never being able to leave their dog alone with anyone else. This can make certain situations very difficult and I have seen these people take their dog to a wedding and a funeral and having to check constantly throughout proceedings to see that their dog is happy in their vehicle while they are gone for very short periods of time.

This is unfair on the animal as there can be times when it is not possible for you to be with your dog, in the case of a hospital emergency as an example. If the dog is trained to accept these times away it won’t be a big deal but a dog who has never been apart from it’s owner could be devastated by this time away. It is in your dogs best interests to get used to time apart so if you haven’t done so already, start a plan to help it cope as soon as possible.   

Please note: This article is part of a collection of dog-related content that we purchased the rights to. Opinions expressed may or may not agree with those espoused by Master Dog Trainer Adam G. Katz. When in doubt, please refer to the advice given in Adam’s dog training book.  This article is provided for your enjoyment, only. It’s relevance to real world working dog training may be limited.